SCSB# 395
MLRA 135: Alabama and Mississippi Blackland Prairie
B.F. Hajek and J. Dane
Auburn University



Chapter Contents


Landuse
In Alabama, Mississippi, and the small outlier in Arkansas this area is about 44% woodland, 29% pastureland, and 14% cropland (Table 1). Most soil areas have been disturbed, and only small remnants of the former prairie vegetation remain. About 2% of the area is used for urban development or for other purposes. Soybeans are the major crop, but cotton, corn, and small grains are also grown. Pastures are used mainly for beef production, but in some places dairying is an important industry. The woodland is about 75 to 80% privately owned and approximately 20 to 25% is owned by industry. Controlling runoff and soil erosion on soils that are cultivated are major environmental concerns.

Elevation and Topography
Elevation ranges from 25 to 100 m. Some of the more prominent valley floors are less than 25 m, and a few ridge tops exceed 100 m. Valley floors, side slopes, and ridge tops are underlain by clay, marl, and chalk. Local relief is mainly a few meters.

Climate
Average annual precipitation is 1,225 to 1,425 mm. Maximum precipitation is early in winter, in spring, and in midsummer; the minimum is in autumn. Average annual temperatureis 16 to 18°C, decreasing from south to north. Average freeze-free period is 220 to 260 days.

Water
Precipitation and perennial streams are important sources of water, but groundwater from moderately deep and deep wells is the principal source for both domestic and municipal uses. Ponds provide water for livestock, and locally they are used for recreation. A few large reservoirs are available for recreation and other uses.

Soils
The dominant soils are Eutrochrepts, Dystruderts, Hapluderts and Epiaquerts, and aquepts (Table 2). They are fine textured and have a thermic temperature regime, an udic moisture regime, and smectitic or carbonatic mineralogy. They are mainly moderately deep to deep over soft limestone or chalk and typically shrink-swell and crack. Well drained Eutrochrepts (Sumter series) and moderately well drained to poorly drained Dystruderts (Oktibbeha and Vaiden series), all of which are nearly level to gently sloping and strongly sloping, are on wide ridge tops and narrow side slopes. Shallow Udorthents (Demopolis series) occur locally but are of moderate extent. Moderately well drained to poorly drained, nearly level to gently sloping Epiaquepts (Leeper series) and Hapludolls (Catalpa series), and Dystraquerts (Eutaw series) are on bottom land and in low upland areas. The outer perimeter of the area is intermittently ringed with moderately well drained to somewhat poorly drained Paleudalfs (Kipling series) and moderately well drained and well drained Hapludults (Conecuh and Luverne series). Table 3 gives some selected soil characteristics of Blackland Prairie soils that relate to water and solute transport. STATSGO soils are depicted in Fig. 1. Official series descriptions of the Oktibbeha, Vaiden, Sumter, Demoplis, and Oklona series are included. Descriptions are available on an Iowa State University Statlab home page (www.statlab.iastate.edu/cgi-bin/osd/osdname.cgi).

Fig. 1. STATSGO soils of the Alabama and Mississippi Blackland Prairie in MLRA 135.

References
Chemical, Mineralogical, and Engineering Properties of Alabama and Mississippi Black Belt Soils. Southern Coop. Series No. 130.

Land Resource Regions and Major Resource Areas of the United States. Ag. Handbook 296 STATSGO, in SMIS (Southern Management Information System), Texas A&M, Temple.

Staff. 1995. NRI 1992 National Resources Inventory. USDA-NRCS, Ft. Worth Federal Bldg. Box 6567, Fort Worth, Texas 76115-0567. (Four CDs).



LOCATION DEMOPOLIS AL+AR MS
Established Series
Rev. PGM
4/97

DEMOPOLIS SERIES

The Demopolis series consists of shallow, well drained, very slowly permeable soils that formed in materials weathered from chalk and soft limestone. They are on ridgetops and side slopes in uplands of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas Blackland Prairie MLRA. The average annual air temperature is about 64°F. and the average annual precipitation is about 58 inches. Slopes range from 1 to 35%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy, carbonatic, thermic, shallow Typic Udorthents

TYPICAL PEDON: Demopolis silty clay loam, on a convex 2% slope, in a pasture. (Colors are for moist soil.)

Ap0 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) silty clay loam; moderate medium granular structure; friable; few medium and many fine roots; common fine and medium nodules of calcium carbonate; about 5% fragments of soft chalk; strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary. (2 to 8 inches thick)

C6 to 13 inches; dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2) silty clay loam; weak fine and medium granular structure; friable; common fine roots; many fragments of soft chalk; common fine and medium nodules and soft masses of calcium carbonate; many fine and medium distinct olive yellow (2.5Y 6/8) masses of iron accumulation; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline; abrupt wavy boundary. (4 to 12 inches thick)

Cr13 to 65 inches; light gray (5Y 7/2) and gray (5Y 6/1) chalk; moderate medium and thick platy rock structure; level-bedded; very firm; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.

TYPE LOCATION: Marengo County, Alabama; 2.1 miles south of junction of U.S. Highways 80 and 43 on U. S. Highway 43; site is 300 feet west of road; 1000 feet north and 1000 feet east of southwest corner of sec. 4, T. 17 N., R. 3 E.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Thickness of the soil over level-bedded, chalk bedrock ranges from 10 to 20 inches. Reaction is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline throughout the profile and the soil is strongly or violently effervescent. The fine-earth fraction of the soil contains from 18 to 35% clay. Chalk fragments are considered pararock fragments and are not used in determining the particle-size family.

The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 2 to 4. Texture is loam, silt loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam; or their channery or cobbly analogues. Percent by volume of chalk fragments ranges from 5 to 35%. Content of nodules, concretions, and/or soft masses of calcium carbonate ranges from few to many.

The C horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 1 or 2. Redox accumulations in shades of brown and yellow range from none to common and are considered to be relic features. Texture is loam, silt loam, clay loam, or silty clay loam; or their channery or cobbly analogues. Percent by volume of soft chalk fragments ranges from 5 to 35%. Similar positions as Demopolis soils. Sumter soils are moderately deep to chalk. Watsonia soils have vertic properties and are acid in the upper part.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; very slowly permeable.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most of the acreage is used for pasture and hay. A small acreage is used for oilseed and grain crops. Many idle areas have scattered cedar, osage orange, and ash.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Uplands of the Blackland Prairie in Alabama, Arkansas, and Mississippi. The series is of large extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Auburn, Alabama

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Chickasaw County, Mississippi; 1969.

REMARKS: The series classification was changed from loamy-skeletal to loamy in 1996. The chalk fragments are considered to be pararock, since they are mostly pulverized during sample processing.

Diagnostic horizons and significant features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon......0 to 6 inches (Ap horizon)

National Cooperative Soil Survey

U.S.A.


LOCATION GORGAS AL+GA
Established Series
Rev. CS:LDS
3/82

GORGAS SERIES

The Gorgas series consists of shallow, well drained, moderately rapid permeable soils that formed in sandstone residuum on ridgetops and side slopes. Slope ranges from 2 to 45%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy, siliceous, thermic Lithic Hapludults

TYPICAL PEDON: Gorgas loamy sandon a convex 8% slope in a wooded area. (Colors are for moist soil.)

A10 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) loamy sand; weak fine granular structure; friable; common fine and medium roots; about 5% by volume of sandstone fragments 3 to 6 inches in diameter and 10% by volume 1/8 inch to 3 inches in diameter; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (2 to 6 inches thick.)

B2t6 to 14 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few medium roots; about 5% by volume of sandstone fragments 3 to 6 inches in diameter and 5% by volume 1/8 inch to 3 inches in diameter; sand grains coated and bridged with clay; strongly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (8 to 16 inches thick.)

R14 inches; hard, massive sandstone bedrock.

TYPE LOCATION: Shelby County, Alabama; 3.5 miles west of Helena, about 400 feet north of railroad track; 1,425 feet west and 800 feet north of the SE corner of sec. 12, T. 20 S., R. 4 W.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness and depth to hard sandstone bedrock is 10 to 20 inches.

The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 to 4. A horizons with value of less than 3.5 moist, and 5.5 dry, are 3 or less inches thick. Texture is loamy sand, sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam or their gravelly, cobbly, and stony analogues. Percent coarse fragments by volume ranges from zero to 50%. Reaction is slightly acid to very strongly acid.

The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR, 7.5YR, or 5YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 3 to 6. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, or loam, or their gravelly analogues. Percent coarse fragments ranges from none to 35%. Reaction is strongly acid or very strongly acid.

Some pedons have B3, C, or Cr horizons less than 4 inches thick with the same hue, value, chroma, reaction, and texture range as the B2t horizon.

COMPETING SERIES: There are no other series in the same family. Competing series in similar families are the Hartsells, Hector, Linker, Mountainburg, and Nauvoo series. Hartsells, Linker, and Nauvoo soils have bedrock at depths of more than 20 inches.

Hector soils lack argillic horizons. Mountainburg soils have skeletal control sections.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Gorgas soils are on gently sloping to steep ridgetops and side slopes. Areas of rock outcrop occur in complex or association with most areas of Gorgas soils. Slope shapes range from slightly convex to slightly concave depending upon the bedding of the underlying rock. Slopes range from 2 to 45%. These soils are forming in sandstone residuum. Mean annual precipitation is about 53 inches and mean annual temperature is about 60°F.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: In addition to the competing soils, these are the Anniston, Montevallo, and Townley series. Anniston soils are on adjacent ridgetops and have a dark red clayey control section. Montevallo and Townley soils are on similar landscape positions but are forming in shale and siltstone residuum. In addition, Townley soils are deeper to rock.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; moderately rapid permeability. Water movement during wet seasons is mostly laterally along the soil-rock contact or along rock cracks immediately beneath the soil.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most areas are in woodland but some areas are cleared and used for growing pasture. Forests are composed of oaks, hickories, and pine.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: The Appalachian Plateau; Cumberland Plateau; and Sand Mountain of Alabama and possibly Tennessee; and possibly the Boston Mountains, Ouachita Mountains, and Arkansas Valley of Arkansas and Oklahoma. This soil is of large extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Jefferson County, Alabama; 1980.

REMARKS: Gorgas soils formerly were included in Hector and Muskingum series.

National Cooperative Soil Survey

U. S. A.


LOCATION HARTSELLS AL+AR GA KY NC OK PA TN
Established Series
Rev. CDB:GWH
1/79

HARTSELLS SERIES

The Hartsells series consists of moderately deep, well drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in loamy materials from acid sandstone containing thin strata of shale or siltstone. These soils are on nearly level to moderately steep ridges and upper slopes of hills and mountains.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic Hapludults

TYPICAL PEDON: Hartsells fine sandy loampasture. (Colors are for moist conditions unless otherwise stated.)

Ap0 to 5 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) fine sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; 10% by volume 1/4 inch to 1 inch angular fragments of sandstone; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (4 to 8 inches thick)

A25 to 9 inches; brown (10YR 5/3) fine sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; very friable; many fine roots; 10% by volume 1/4 inch to 3 inch angular fragments of sandstone; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (4 to 8 inches thick)

B19 to 13 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; few fine fragments of sandstone; most sand grains coated with clay; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. (0 to 6 inches thick)

B21t13 to 20 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) sandy clay loam; weak and moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; few fine fragments of sandstone; thin continuous clay films on faces of most peds; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. (4 to 8 inches thick)

B22t20 to 30 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots; thin patchy clay films on faces of most peds; 10% by volume 1/2 inch to 2 inch angular fragments of sandstone; very strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. (4 to 10 inches thick)

B330 to 36 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) sandy loam, texture coarsens with increasing depths; weak medium subangular blocky structure; very friable; 30% by volume 1/2 inch to 2 inch angular fragments of sandstone; sand grains coated with clay; very strongly acid; abrupt boundary. (0 to 8 inches thick)

R36 inches; acid sandstone.

TYPE LOCATION: Marshall County, Alabama; Land Mountain NW Corner of NW1/4SE1/4sec. 24, T. 8 S., R. 3 E. Very near the center of the section.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Depth to bedrock and solum thickness range from 20 to 40 inches. The amount of coarse fragments, chiefly sandstone, ranges from none to 15% in any horizon, except the B3 and C horizons which range up to 35%. Where the soil has not been limed, it is extremely acid through strongly acid throughout.

The Ap horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 through 8. Some pedons have a 1 to 4 inch A1 horizon that has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4, and chroma of 2 or 3. The A2 horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 3 through 8. Texture of the A horizon is fine sandy loam or loam.

The B1 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or 7.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 through 8. Texture is sandy loam or loam.

The B2t horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 through 8, and the lower part commonly is mottled in shades of red, brown, or yellow. Texture is sandy loam, loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam. The average clay content of the upper 20 inches of the B2t horizon or to bedrock commonly is 18 to 24%, but ranges from 18 to 35%.

The B3 or C horizon is similar to the B2t horizon in color and texture.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Apison, Cahaba, Cowarts, Durham, Emporia, Euharlee, Granville, Kempsville, Linker, Marvyn, Nauvoo, Nectar, Pirum, Spadra, and Suffolk series. All except Linker and Pirum soils have bedrock at depths of greater than 40 inches. Linker soils have Bt horizons of 5YR or 2.5YR hue. Pirum soils have irregular lower boundaries over fractured or tilted sandstone.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Hartsells soils occur on broad smooth plateaus, mountaintops, or hilltops. Slopes between 3 and 8% are dominant but the extreme range of slope is 2 to 25%. The soil formed in moderately coarse to medium textured materials. The country rock consists of acid hard sandstone containing thin strata of shale or siltstone in some places. Near the type location the average annual air temperature is 61° F and the average rainfall is 56 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These include the competing Linker series and the Albertville, Crossville, Enders, Hector, Townley, and Wynnville series. Albertville, Enders, and Townley soils have more than 35% clay in their control sections. Crossville and Hector soils lack argillic horizons. Wynnville soils have a fragipan.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; medium runoff; moderate permeability.

USE AND VEGETATION: Cotton and corn are the major crops; minor crops are oats, sorghum, cowpeas, soybeans, sweet potatoes, Irish potatoes, hay, orchards, and vegetables. Some acreage is in pasture. More than one-fourth of the soil is forested; second-growth white, red, post, black, and chestnut oaks, tulip poplar, blackgum, and hickory and some pines are on areas that have remained continuously in forest, but loblolly and shortleaf pines are the principal cover in abandoned cropland and pasture.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Cumberland Plateau in Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, and Tennessee; the Boston Mountains and adjoining ridges in Arkansas and possibly Oklahoma. The series is of large extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Cherokee County, Alabama; 1924.

National Cooperative Soil Survey, U.S.A.



 

LOCATION MONTEVALLO AL+AR GA KY MD TN
Established Series
Rev. GLH:JCM
10/86

MONTEVALLO SERIES

The Montevallo series consists of shallow, well drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in residuum from siltstone or silty shale. These soils are on gently sloping to steep, narrow, ridge tops and sideslopes. Slopes range from 2 to 60%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, thermic, shallow Typic Dystrochrepts

TYPICAL PEDON: Montevallo channery silt loam, steeply sloping, forested. (Colors are for moist soil.)

A10 to 2 inches; very dark gray (10YR 3/1) channery silt loam, upper 1/2 inch black (10YR 2/1) and high in humus; moderate fine granular structure; friable; many fine roots; strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 3 inches thick)

A22 to 6 inches; dark grayish brown (10YR 4/2) channery silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; many fine and medium roots; strongly acid; lower 2 inches is mixed with from 5 to 15% material like that of the B horizon; gradual wavy boundary. (3 to 7 inches thick)

B6 to 16 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) extremely channery silt loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots; few large roots; about 70% by volume of channers of silty shale; strongly acid; gradual irregular boundary. (4 to 15 inches thick)

Cr16 to 36 inches; light yellowish brown (10YR 6/4) weakly cemented, fractured silty shale containing less than 5% by volume of fines as coatings on shale channers and as siftings in cracks.

TYPE LOCATION: Jefferson County, Alabama; 2 miles west of Graysville, 0.6 mile south-southwest of Flattop Experimental Forest Office and 50 feet east of gravel road in timer in N1/2SW1/4 sec. 19, T. 16 S., R 4 W.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness and depth to rock range from 10 to 20 inches thick. Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly acid, except for the surface layer where limed.

The A horizon has hue of 7.5YR or 10YR, value of 2 through 6, and chroma of 1 to 4. Where value is less than 4, the A horizon is less than 6 inches thick. The A horizon contains 15 to 60% by volume of channers of shale. Texture is channery silt loam, channery loam, very channery silt loam, or very channery loam.

The B horizon has hue of 2.5Y through 5YR, value of 4 through 6, and chroma of 3 through 8. The B horizon contains 35 to 85% shale channers. Texture is very channery silt loam, very channery loam, very channery clay loam, very channery silty clay loam, or their extremely channery counterparts. Percent clay ranges from 15 to 35%.

The Cr is weakly cemented siltstone or silty shale that is in beds having dip of less than 35°. Hardness of this material on Mohs scale ranges from 1.5 to 3.0.

COMPETING SERIES: There are no other known series in this family. Other competing series in related families are the Armuchee, Hector, Manteo, Mountainburg, Pickens, Ramsey, Sulphura, Tallapoosa, and Talladega series.

Armuchee soils contain more than 35% clay and less shale fragments in the sola. Hector, Manteo, Mountainburg, Pickens, Ramsey, Sulphura, and Talladega soils have a lithic contact at depths of 20 inches or less. In addition, Hector and Ramsey soils contain less than 35% coarse fragments. Mountainburg soils have Bt horizons. Sulphura soils have Bt horizons in some parts of each pedon, and Talladega soils have loamy Bt horizons interrupted by rock ledges. Tallapoosa soils have thin continuous Bt horizons.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Montevallo soils are on gently sloping to steep valley slopes and narrow ridgetops of the southern Appalachian Region. Slope gradients range from 2 to 45%. The soil formed in residuum from siltstone or silty shale which may contain a few strata of sandstone. The climate is warm and humid. Near the type location, the average daily temperature for January is 47°F., that for July is 81°F., and the mean annual temperature is about 63°F. The mean annual precipitation is about 53 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Ramsey series, and the Albertville, Cunningham, Enders, and Townley series. Albertville, Cunningham, Enders, and Townley soils have clayey Bt horizons.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; medium to rapid runoff; moderate permeability.

USE AND VEGETATION: Chiefly used for forestry. Native trees are hickory, red oak, white oak, blackjack oak, shortleaf pine, longleaf pine, and Virginia pine. Small acreages are used for pasture, hay, and cultivated crops.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee, and possibly other states. The series is of large extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Talladega County, Alabama; 1907.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of 6 inches (the A1 and A2 horizons)

Cambric horizon - the zone from a depth of 6 inches to a depth of 16 inches (the Bt horizon)

Paralithic contact - the contact of the soil with silty shale (16 inches)

National Cooperative Soil Survey U. S. A.



 

LOCATION NAUVOO AL+AR GA
Established Series
Rev. JHB:GWH
8/82

NAUVOO SERIES

The Nauvoo series consists of deep, well drained, moderately permeable soils that formed in loamy residuum weathered from sandstone or interbedded sandstone and shale. These soils are on broad plateaus, mountainsides, hilltops, and benches. Water runs off the surface slowly to rapidly, depending on the slope and vegetative cover. Slope is dominantly 2 to 10 %, but ranges up to 35%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Typic Hapludults

TYPICAL PEDON: Nauvoo fine sandy loam, on a complex 7% slope in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil.)

Ap0 to 7 inches; brown (10YR 4/3) fine sandy loam; weak fine granular structure; slightly hard, very friable; many fine and medium roots; 10 to 15% coarse fragments less than 1 inch in diameter; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (4 to 10 inches thick)

BE7 to 11 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) fine sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; hard, friable; common fine and medium roots; common fine and medium pores; thin patchy clay films on faces of peds; 5% coarse fragments less than 1 inch in diameter; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 13 inches thick)

Bt11 to 30 inches; yellowish red (5YR 4/6) sandy clay loam; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; hard, friable; few fine and medium roots; common fine and medium pores; thin patchy clay films on faces of peds; 5% coarse fragments less than 1 inch in diameter; very strongly acid; gradual wavy boundary. (10 to 33 inches thick)

BC30 to 42 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) fine sandy loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; hard, friable; thin patchy clay films on faces of peds; 10% coarse fragments less than 1 inch in diameter; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 14 inches thick)

Cr42 to 60 inches; yellowish red, level bedded, massive, weathered, sandstone bedrock.

TYPE LOCATION: Marion County, Alabama; two miles north on State Highway 5 from Bear Creek, Alabama to the Marion-Franklin County line; 0.25 mile east on farm to market road; 0.25 mile east on field road and 860 feet south in field. NE1/4NW1/4 sec. 3 T. 9 S., R. 11 W.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 30 to 50 inches and the depth to weathered bedrock is 40 to 60 inches. Coarse sandstone, shale, or quartz fragments range from 0% to as high as 15% in the lower part of the profile. Reaction ranges from medium acid to very strongly acid, except for surface layers that have been limed.

The A horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 or 5 and chroma of 3 through 6. Some pedons have A horizons less than 6 inches thick with value of 3 and chroma of 2 or 3. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam. Coarse fragments range from 0 to 5%.

The BE horizon, where present, has hue of 7.5YR through 5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 through 8. Texture is sandy loam, fine sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam. Coarse fragments range from 0 to 10%.

The Bt horizon has hue of 5YR or 2.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 through 8. Textures are loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam. In some pedons, the lower part of this horizon is mottled in shades of yellow, brown, and red. Coarse fragments range from 0 to 8%.

The BC horizon has about the same color range as the B1, except it may be mottled with shades of brown or yellow. Texture is fine sandy loam, loam, or sandy clay loam. Coarse fragments range from 0 to 15%.

The Cr horizon consists of level bedded, weathered sandstone or interbedded sandstone and shale in shades of red, yellow, or gray. It ranges from highly weathered and fractured to a slightly weathered, massive, and coherent state. It is rippable with heavy equipment and can be cut in most places with hand tools. Some pedons have C horizons 2 to 10 inches thick overlying the paralithic contact.

COMPETING SERIES: These are Apison, Cahaba, Durham, Euharlee, Granville, Hartsells, Kempsville, Linker, Nectar, Pirum, and Spadra series. Apison soils have a paralithic contact within 40 inches of the soil surface. Cahaba, Durham, Euharlee, Granville, Kempsville, Nectar, and Spadra soils do not have a paralithic contact within 60-inch depths. Hartsells and Linker soils have lithic contacts within a depth of 40 inches. Pirum soils have lithic contacts within 50 inches.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Nauvoo soils are on broad plateaus, hilltops, mountainsides, and benches. Slope is dominantly 2 to 10% but ranges up to 35%. The soil formed in loamy residuum weathered from soft sandstone or interbedded sandstone and shale. Near the type location, average temperature is 60°F., and average annual rainfall is about 53 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Hartsells and Nectar series and Albertville, Allen, Enders, Hector, Holston, Montevallo, Mountainburg, and Townley series. Albertville, Enders, and Townley soils have more than 35% clay in their control sections. Allen and Holston soils have sola thicker than 60 inches. Hector, Montevallo, and Mountainburg soils have sola less than 20 inches thick.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Nauvoo soils are well drained and have moderate permeability. Runoff is slow to rapid depending on the slope and vegetative cover.

USE AND VEGETATION: Much of the soil is cleared and used for growing cotton, corn, soybeans, small grains, hay, and pasture. Forests are mixed hardwoods and pine.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: North Alabama. The series is of moderate extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Marion County, Alabama; 1977.

REMARKS: The Nauvoo series was formerly included in the Linker series. It is being separated from the Linker series because the soil has contact with rippable bedrock.

National Cooperative Soil Survey, USA



 

LOCATION OKOLONA MS+AL
Established Series
Rev. WMK:WIS:RBH
02/97

OKOLONA SERIES

The Okolona series consists of deep, well drained very slowly permeable soils in uplands of the Blackland Prairie Major Land Resource Area. These are nearly level to gently sloping soils that formed in calcareous clayey material that is underlain by marly clay and chalk. These soils have very high shrink-swell potential. Slopes range from 0 to 5%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, smectitic, thermic Oxyaquic Hapluderts

TYPICAL PEDON: Okolona silty clay on 0 to 2% slopes, cultivated. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) silty clay; moderate medium granular structure; firm, sticky, very plastic; few fine roots; few fine calcium carbonate nodules; noncalcareous; moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.

A8 to 18 inches; very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) silty clay; moderate medium prismatic structure parts to moderate fine angular blocky; firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine roots; few medium worm casts; few fine black and brown

concretions; stress surfaces on faces of peds; few fine and medium calcium carbonate nodules; calcareous, slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the A horizon is 14 to 25 inches)

Bw118 to 27 inches; olive (5Y 4/3) silty clay; common fine faint light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles; moderate medium prismatic structure parts to moderate medium and fine angular blocky; firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine roots; few

fine slickensides that intersect; few fine and medium calcium carbonate nodules; few fine black concretions; stress surfaces on faces of peds; calcareous, slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.

Bw227 to 48 inches; olive (5Y 4/3) silty clay; common fine faint light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles; intersecting slickensides form wedge-shaped aggregates that part to fine angular blocky structure; firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine black concretions; few fine and medium calcium carbonate nodules; calcareous, slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bw horizon is 26 to 45 inches)

C48 to 65 inches; mottled dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2), olive brown (2.5Y 4/4), and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay; intersecting slickensides form wedge-shaped aggregates which part to fine and medium angular blocky structure; very firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine black concretions; common medium and coarse calcium carbonate nodules; calcareous, strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (12 to 20 inches thick)

R65 to 82 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) platy chalk.

TYPE LOCATION: Monroe County, Mississippi; 0.75 miles southeast of Muldon, and 360 feet south of gravel road and 1,800 feet east of railroad, NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 2, T. 15 S., R. 6 E.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The combined thickness of the A and Bw horizon ranges from 40 to more than 65 inches. Depth to chalk ranges from 48 to more than 100 inches. Intersecting slickensides are at a depth ranging from 15 to 33 inches below the surface. Cycles of micro-lows and micro-highs are repeated about every 7 to 20 feet. Thickness of horizons with a color value of less than 3.5 and chroma of 1.5 or more ranges from 16 to 25 inches in the center of the micro-lows and from 8 to 14 inches in the center of the micro-highs. The extremes of amplitude of waviness of the boundary between the A and Bw horizons vary from 8 to 33 inches from the center of the micro-highs to the center of the micro-lows.

The A horizon has in the upper 12 inches of more than half of each pedon a matrix in hue of 10YR, 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2 or 3; other colors, if present, have hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 1 or 2; and hue of 2.5Y and 5Y, with value of 4, and chroma of 2. Texture is silty clay or clay. Some pedons have a silty clay loam Ap horizon. Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline.

The Bw and C horizons have hue 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4; or they are mottled in shades of brown and gray. Texture of the Bw and C horizons is silty clay or clay. The particle size control section, from 10- to 40-inches, has 40 to 55% clay. Brown and black concretions range from few to common. The Bw and C horizons are neutral to moderately alkaline.

COMPETING SERIES: There are no competing series in the same family. Closely related soils are the Beaumont, Brooksville, Burleson, Eutaw, Heiden, Houston, Houston Black, Kipling, and Lela series. The Beaumont and Eutaw soils are grayer and have a dominant chroma of less than 1.5 throughout the control section. Brooksville soils have distinct or prominent mottles in shades of red and brown within 20 inches of the surface and are more acid in the upper part of the soil. Burleson, Heiden, and Houston Black soils have an ustic moisture regime. Houston soils have more than 60% clay and are less silty in the 10- to 40-inch control section. Kipling soils have a yellowish brown Bt horizon mottled with gray. Lela soils have mixed mineralogy.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Okolona soils are on uplands in the Blackland Prairie Major Land Resource Area. Slopes range from 0 to 5%. These are nearly level to gently sloping soils that formed in calcareous clayey material, which is underlain by marly clay and chalk. The climate is warm and humid. Average annual precipitation is about 48 inches and average annual temperature is about 63°F near the type location.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Brooksville and Kipling soils listed in the competing series and the Binnsville, Demopolis, Griffith, and Sumter series. Somewhat poorly drained Brooksville and Kipling soils are on similar landscape positions as the Okolona soils. Well drained Binnsville and Demopolis soils, which have a solum less than 20 inches thick over chalk, commonly are in slightly higher positions on ridgetops and hillsides.

Well drained Griffith soils, which have amplitude of waviness between the A and Bw horizons of 6 to 10 inches and have an A horizon 24 to 48 inches thick, are on flood plains. Well drained Sumter soils, which have a solum 20 to 40 inches thick and do not have intersecting slickensides, are mainly in small areas on ridges and hillsides.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; slow to rapid runoff; very slow permeability. The seasonal high water table in wet seasons is at a depth of 4 to 6 feet.

USE AND VEGETATION: The Okolona soils are used for growing cotton, soybeans, sorgum, small grain, hay, and pasture. Common trees include eastern redcedar and osage orange.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Mississippi. The series is of moderate extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Auburn, Alabama

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Monroe County, Mississippi; 1969.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of about 18 inches (Ap, A horizons).

Typic Chromuderts features - do not have distinct or prominent mottles within 20 inches of the soil surface (Ap, A, Bw1 horizons). Have color value, moist, less than 3.5 throughout the upper 12 inches in more than half of each pedon (Ap, A horizons).

Slickensides that are close enough to intersect (Bw1, Bw2, C horizons).

National Cooperative Soil Survey U. S. A.


LOCATION OKOLONA MS+AL
Established Series
Rev. WMK:WIS:RBH
2/97

OKOLONA SERIES

The Okolona series consists of deep, well drained very slowly permeable soils in uplands of the Blackland Prairie Major Land Resource Area. These are nearly level to gently sloping soils that formed in calcareous clayey material that is underlain by marly clay and chalk. These soils have very high shrink-swell potential. Slopes range from 0 to 5%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine, smectitic, thermic Oxyaquic Hapluderts

TYPICAL PEDON: Okolona silty clay on 0 to 2% slopes, cultivated. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap0 to 8 inches; very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) silty clay; moderate medium granular structure; firm, sticky, very plastic; few fine roots; few fine calcium carbonate nodules; noncalcareous; moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary.

A8 to 18 inches; very dark grayish brown (2.5Y 3/2) silty clay; moderate medium prismatic structure parts to moderate fine angular blocky; firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine roots; few medium worm casts; few fine black and brown concretions; stress surfaces on faces of peds; few fine and medium calcium carbonate nodules; calcareous, slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the A horizon is 14 to 25 inches)

Bw118 to 27 inches; olive (5Y 4/3) silty clay; common fine faint light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles; moderate medium prismatic structure parts to moderate medium and fine angular blocky; firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine roots; few fine slickensides that intersect; few fine and medium calcium carbonate nodules; few fine black concretions; stress surfaces on faces of peds; calcareous, slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary.

Bw227 to 48 inches; olive (5Y 4/3) silty clay; common fine faint light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) mottles; intersecting slickensides form wedge-shaped aggregates that part to fine angular blocky structure; firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine black concretions; few fine and medium calcium carbonate nodules; calcareous, slightly effervescent; oderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bw horizon is 26 to 45 inches)

C48 to 65 inches; mottled dark grayish brown (2.5Y 4/2), olive brown (2.5Y 4/4), and yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay; intersecting slickensides form wedge-shaped aggregates which part to fine and medium angular blocky structure; very firm, very sticky, very plastic; few fine black concretions; common medium and coarse calcium carbonate nodules; calcareous, strongly effervescent; moderately alkaline; gradual wavy boundary. (12 to 20 inches thick)

R65 to 82 inches; olive gray (5Y 5/2) platy chalk.

TYPE LOCATION: Monroe County, Mississippi; 0.75 miles southeast of Muldon, and 360 feet south of gravel road and 1,800 feet east of railroad, NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 2, T. 15 S., R. 6 E.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: The combined thickness of the A and Bw horizon ranges from 40 to more than 65 inches. Depth to chalk ranges from 48 to more than 100 inches. Intersecting slickensides are at a depth ranging from 15 to 33 inches below the surface. Cycles of micro-lows and micro-highs are repeated about every 7 to 20 feet. Thickness of horizons with a color value of less than 3.5 and chroma of 1.5 or more ranges from 16 to 25 inches in the center of the micro-lows and from 8 to 14 inches in the center of the micro-highs. The extremes of amplitude of waviness of the boundary between the A and Bw horizons vary from 8 to 33 inches from the center of the micro-highs to the center of the micro-lows. The A horizon has in the upper 12 inches of more than half of each pedon a matrix in hue of 10YR, 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 2 or 3, and chroma of 2 or 3; other colors, if present, have hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4 and chroma of 1 or 2; and hue of 2.5Y and 5Y, with value of 4, and chroma of 2. Texture is silty clay or clay. Some pedons have a silty clay loam Ap horizon. Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline.

The Bw and C horizons have hue 2.5Y or 5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 2 to 4; or they are mottled in shades of brown and gray. Texture of the Bw and C horizons is silty clay or clay. The particle size control section, from 10- to 40-inches, has 40 to 55% clay. Brown and black concretions range from few to common. The Bw and C horizons are neutral to moderately alkaline.

COMPETING SERIES: There are no competing series in the same family. Closely related soils are the Beaumont, Brooksville, Burleson, Eutaw, Heiden, Houston, Houston Black, Kipling, and Lela series. The Beaumont and Eutaw soils are grayer and have a dominant chroma of less than 1.5 throughout the control section. Brooksville soils have distinct or prominent mottles in shades of red and brown within 20 inches of the surface and are more acid in the upper part of the soil. Burleson, Heiden, and Houston Black soils have an ustic moisture regime. Houston soils have more than 60% clay and are less silty in the 10- to 40-inch control section. Kipling soils have a yellowish brown Bt horizon mottled with gray. Lela soils have mixed mineralogy.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Okolona soils are on uplands in the Blackland Prairie Major Land Resource Area. Slopes range from 0 to 5%. These are nearly level to gently sloping soils that formed in calcareous clayey material, which is underlain by marly clay and chalk. The climate is warm and humid. Average annual precipitation is about 48 inches and average annual temperature is about 63°F near the type location.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Brooksville and Kipling soils listed in the competing series and the Binnsville, Demopolis, Griffith, and Sumter series. Somewhat poorly drained Brooksville and Kipling soils are on similar landscape positions as the Okolona soils. Well drained Binnsville and Demopolis soils, which have a solum less than 20 inches thick over chalk, commonly are in slightly higher positions on ridgetops and hillsides.

Well drained Griffith soils, which have amplitude of waviness between the A and Bw horizons of 6 to 10 inches and have an A horizon 24 to 48 inches thick, are on flood plains. Well drained Sumter soils, which have a solum 20 to 40 inches thick and do not have intersecting slickensides, are mainly in small areas on ridges and hillsides.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; slow to rapid runoff; very slow permeability. The seasonal high water table in wet seasons is at a depth of 4 to 6 feet.

USE AND VEGETATION: The Okolona soils are used for growing cotton, soybeans, sorgum, small grain, hay, and pasture. Common trees include eastern redcedar and osage orange.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Mississippi. The series is of moderate extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Auburn, Alabama

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Monroe County, Mississippi; 1969.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Mollic epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of about 18 inches (Ap, A horizons).

Typic Chromuderts features - do not have distinct or prominent mottles within 20 inches of the soil surface (Ap, A, Bw1 horizons). Have color value, moist, less than 3.5 throughout the upper 12 inches in more than half of each pedon (Ap, A horizons).

Slickensides that are close enough to intersect (Bw1, Bw2, C horizons).

National Cooperative Soil Survey U. S. A.



 

LOCATION OKTIBBEHA AL+AR FL GA LA MS TN
Established Series
Rev. PGM
2/97

OKTIBBEHA SERIES

The Oktibbeha series consists of very deep, moderately well drained, very slowly permeable soils that formed in clayey sediments overlying chalk or calcareous clays. They are on convex ridge tops and side slopes on uplands of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas Blackland Prairie and the Southern Coastal Plain major land resource areas. Near the type location, the average annual air temperature is about 63°F. and the average annual precipitation is about 53 inches. Slope ranges from 1 to 30%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Very-fine, smectitic, thermic Chromic Dystruderts

TYPICAL PEDON: Oktibbeha clay loam in pasture, micro-high of cyclic pedon. (Colors are for moist soil.)

Ap0 to 4 inches; dark brown (10YR 3/3) clay loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm; many very fine and fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (1 to 6 inches thick)

Bt14 to 9 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) clay; moderate fine and medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common fine roots and few coarse roots along structural faces; distinct pressure faces on surfaces of peds; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

Bt29 to 13 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) clay; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; common fine roots and few coarse roots along structural faces; distinct pressure faces on surfaces of peds; few medium distinct red (2.5YR 5/6) masses of iron accumulation within the matrix; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bt horizon is 8 to 25 inches.)

Bss113 to 34 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky; firm; few fine roots throughout; common large intersecting slickensides having distinct polished and grooved surfaces; few fine faint pale brown (10YR 6/3) iron depletions on faces of peds and few medium faint strong brown (7.5YR 4/6) masses of iron accumulation on faces of peds and within the matrix; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

Bss234 to 45 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) clay; weak coarse subangular blocky structure parting to moderate medium subangular and angular blocky; firm; few fine roots on faces of peds and on slickenside faces; common large intersecting slickensides having prominent polished and grooved surfaces; common medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions on faces of peds and within the matrix; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bss horizon is 15 to 35 inches.)

Bkss145 to 62 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) interior, olive gray (2.5Y 6/2) exterior, silty clay; weak very coarse subangular blocky structure parting to strong fine and medium angular blocky; firm; few fine roots, flattened on primary surfaces; common large intersecting slickensides having prominent polished and grooved surfaces; few fine and medium distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions in the matrix; olive gray colors on faces of slickensides and peds are iron depletions; many fine and medium rounded soft masses of calcium carbonate and few fine rounded calcium carbonate nodules; violently effervescent; slightly alkaline; clear wavy boundary.

Bkss262 to 80 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) interior, olive gray (5Y 5/2) exterior, clay; weak very coarse subangular blocky structure parting to strong fine and medium angular blocky; firm; few fine roots, flattened on primary surfaces; common large intersecting slickensides having prominent polished and grooved surfaces; few fine distinct light brownish gray (10YR 6/2) iron depletions in the matrix; olive gray colors on faces of slickensides and peds are iron depletions; many fine and medium rounded soft masses of calcium carbonate; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Marengo County, Alabama; about 1 mile northeast of Dayton on County Road 44; 1,800 feet south and 1,800 feet east of the northwest corner of section 18, T.16N., R.5E.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Depth to horizons with secondary carbonates ranges from 30 to 50 inches. Depth to chalk bedrock characterized as a paralithic contact is more than 60 inches.

The A or Ap horizon has hue of 5YR to 10YR, value of 3 to 5, and chroma of 2 to 4. Texture is commonly clay loam, silty clay loam, clay, or silty clay, but ranges to loam, fine sandy loam, or silt loam. Reaction is commonly very strongly acid or strongly acid, but ranges to neutral where lime has been added.

The Bt horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, value of 4 to 5, and chroma of 6 to 8. Texture is clay. Iron depletions in shades of gray and iron accumulations in shades of brown and red range from none to common, generally increasing with depth. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid. Some pedons have faint, slightly grooved slickensides and are designated Btss.

The upper part of the Bss horizon has hue of 2.5YR to 10YR, value of 4 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 8; or has no dominant matrix color and is multi-colored in shades of red, brown, and gray. The lower part has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 5 to 6, and chroma of 4 to 6; or has no dominant matrix color and is multi-colored in shades of brown, gray, and red. Iron depletions in shades of gray and iron accumulations in shades of brown and red range from few to many, generally increasing with depth. Texture is clay. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to slightly acid.

The Bkss horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, and value of 4 to 6. Chroma ranges from 4 to 8 in ped interiors and from 2 to 4 on exterior faces of peds or slickenside faces. Some pedons do not have a dominant matrix color and are multi-colored in shades of olive, brown, and gray. Iron depletions in shades of gray and iron accumulations in shades of brown range from few to many and are most common on surfaces of peds or slickensides. Texture is clay or silty clay. Reaction is commonly slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline, but ranges to neutral. Soft masses of calcium carbonate range from common to many and concretions or nodules of carbonate range from few to many. Some pedons have few to common soft masses and/or concretions of manganese.

The 2C horizon, present in some pedons, is highly weathered chalk or calcareous clay. It is massive or has platy rock structure. Reaction is slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline. Some pedons have a 2Cr horizon below a depth of 60 inches that is weathered chalk bedrock. It can be dug with difficulty with hand tools and is rippable by heavy machinery.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Lacerda series in the same family and the Hannon and Raylake series in related families. The Hannon series is less acid in the upper 20 inches, is in a fine particle-size family, and has carbonates within 30 inches of the surface. Lacerda soils are not considered to have an argillic horizon and are derived from shale. Raylake soils are in a fine particle-size family and have gypsum crystals in the lower part of the solum

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Oktibbeha soils are on ridge tops and side slopes on uplands of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas Blackland Prairie and the Southern Coastal Plain MLRAs. Slopes are generally 1 to 15%, but may be as steep as 30% in some places. These soils formed in clayey sediments overlying chalk or calcareous clays. The average annual air temperature ranges from 60 to 65°F, and the average annual precipitation ranges from 48 to 56 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Binnsville, Demopolis, Faunsdale, Keiffer, Kipling, Maytag, Sumter, Vaiden, and Watsonia series. Binnsville and Demopolis soils are on higher positions and are shallow to bedrock. Faunsdale and Maytag soils are on lower positions and have hue of 10YR or yellower throughout. Keiffer and Sumter soils are on similar positions as Oktibbeha soils and are fine-silty and calcareous to the surface. Kipling soils, on lower positions, are in the fine particle-size family and have dominant hue of 7.5YR or yellower in the upper part of the solum. Vaiden soils, on lower, less convex positions, have dominant hue of 10YR or yellower in the upper part of the solum. Watsonia soils are on similar positions as Oktibbeha soils and are shallow to chalk bedrock.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Moderately well drained; medium to rapid runoff; very slow permeability. No free water has been observed in these soils but soil morphology suggests that they may be saturated within a depth of 1.5 to 3.5 feet of the surface for short periods during winter and spring.

USE AND VEGETATION: Principal use is woodland. Some areas are in pasture, hayland, or cultivated crops. The main crops are cotton, corn, and soybeans. Common trees in wooded areas include loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, southern red oak, post oak, sweetgum, and hickory.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Tennessee. It is of large extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Auburn, Alabama

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Oktibbeha County, Mississippi in 1907.

REMARKS: These soils were formerly classified as Vertic Hapludalfs. An argillic horizon is not currently recognized in the Vertisol order but is considered an important feature of this soil.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of about 4 inches (Ap horizon)

Argillic horizon - the zone from about 4 to 13 inches (Bt horizons)

Cambic horizon - the zone from about 13 to 80 inches (Bss and Bkss horizons)

Intersecting slickensides beginning at about 13 inches and continuing to a depth of 80 inches. (Bss and Bkss horizons)

SIR - AL0072, AL0113

MLRA 135, 133A, 133B

National Cooperative Soil Survey U.S.A.



 

LOCATION SUMTER AL+AR FL GA LA MS OK TN TX
Established Series
Rev. PGM
2/87

SUMTER SERIES

The Sumter series consists of moderately deep, well drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in marly clays and chalk of the Blackland Prairies. They are on gently sloping to steep uplands. Water runs off the surface medium to rapidly. Slope ranges from 1 to 40 percent.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-silty, carbonatic, thermic Rendollic Eutrochrepts

TYPICAL PEDON: Sumter silty clay on a convex 3% slope in pasture. (Colors are for moist soil.)

Ap0 to 6 inches; grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay; moderate medium granular structure; friable, plastic, slightly hard; common fine roots; moderately alkaline; strongly effervescent; clear smooth boundary. (4 to 10 inches thick)

Bw16 to 10 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) and grayish brown (2.5Y 5/2) silty clay; moderate medium granular structure; friable, plastic, hard; few fine roots; moderately alkaline; strongly effervescent; gradual wavy boundary.

Bw210 to 21 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) silty clay; few fine distinct brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) mottles; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable, plastic, hard; few fine roots; few fine soft calcium carbonate nodules; moderately alkaline; strongly effervescent; gradual wavy boundary.

Bw321 to 28 inches; light yellowish brown (2.5Y 6/4) silty clay; common medium distinct light gray (2.5Y 7/2), and yellow (2.5Y 7/6) mottles; moderate fine subangular blocky structure; friable, slightly plastic, hard; few fine soft calcium carbonate nodules; few partially weathered platy fragments of chalk; moderately alkaline; strongly effervescent; gradual wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bw horizon is 14 to 36 inches.)

Cr28 to 60 inches; light gray (2.5Y 7/2) chalk; mottles and streaks of pale yellow (2.5Y 7/4) yellowish brown (10YR 5/8), white (5Y 8/1), and light olive gray (5Y 6/2) along cracks and seams; moderately alkaline, violently effervescent.

TYPE LOCATION: Dallas County, Alabama; 0.6 mile west of the Black Belt Substation office, 1000 feet east and 75 feet north of the SE corner of the SW1/4, sec. 2, T. 17 N., R. 8 E.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness and depth to chalk or marly clay ranges from 20 to 40 inches. The calcium carbonate equivalent ranges from 40 to 65%. Non-carbonatic clay content ranges from 18 to 35%.

The A horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 2 to 5, and chroma of 1 or 2. Texture is silt loam, silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay with up to 10% by volume of chalk fragments or calcium carbonate nodules 2 mm to 10 mm in size. Some pedons have cobbly or very cobbly silt loam or silty clay loam surface layers with 7 to 74% by volume of cobbles 3 to 10 inches in size and 4 to 15% by volume of chalk fragments or calcium carbonate nodules smaller than 3 inches. Reaction is neutral to moderately alkaline.

The upper part of the Bw horizon has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 4 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. Texture is silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay with 2 to 15% by volume of chalk fragments and/or calcium carbonate nodules. Reaction is mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline.

The lower part of the Bw horizon and the BC horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR to 5Y, value of 5 to 7, and chroma of 3 to 6. Texture is silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay or their channery analogues with 2 to 25% by volume of chalk fragments and/or calcium carbonate nodules. Reaction is mildly alkaline or moderately alkaline.

COMPETING SERIES: There are no other series in this family. Brassfield soils are similar but have mean annual soil temperatures of less than 59°F. and have more than 15% sand coarser than very fine sand in the sola.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Sumter soils are on sloping topography in the Blackland Prairie, but slopes range to steep at its contact with the Southern Coastal Plain. Slopes range from 1 to 40%. Sumter soils are formed in marly clays and chalk. The climate is warm-humid. Average annual temperature is about 67°F, and average annual precipitation is about 51 inches near the type location.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These include the Binnsville, Brooksville, Demopolis, Houston, Kipling, Maytag, Okolona, Oktibbeha, Vaiden, and Watsonia series. Binnsville, Demopolis, and Watsonia soils have sola less than 20 inches thick. Brooksville, Houston, and Okolona soils are thicker over chalk and the calcium carbonate content is less than 40%. Kipling, Oktibbeha, and Vaiden soils have sola that are acid and more plastic and sticky. Maytag soils, on gentler slopes, have vertic properties and montmorillonitic mineralogy.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained; medium to rapid runoff; slow permeability.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most of the less sloping areas of this soil are cleared and used for growing pasture, hay, and small grain. Some areas are in redcedar. Steeper areas are in native woodland, mainly oaks and redcedar.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Blackland Prairies of Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, and eastern Texas. The series is of large extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Auburn, Alabama

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Sumter County, Georgia; 1910.

REMARKS: Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon - the zone form the surface to a depth of about 6 inches (Ap horizon).

Cambic horizon - the zone from about 6 inches to a depth of 28 inches (Bw1, Bw2, Bw3 horizons).

Rendollic features - have greater that 40% carbonates in and below the cambic horizon.

National Cooperative Soil Survey. U. S. A.



 

LOCATION TOWNLEY AL+AR GA TN
Established Series
Rev. JAC:GWH
12/83

TOWNLEY SERIES

The Townley series consists of moderately deep, well drained, slowly permeable soils on upland ridge tops and side slopes. They formed in clayey residuum weathered from shale or interbedded sandstone and shale. Water runs off the surface medium to rapidly depending on slope and vegetative cover. Slope ranges from 2 to 45%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Clayey, mixed, thermic Typic Hapludults

TYPICAL PEDON: Townley silt loam, on a convex 5% slope, in forest. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

A10 to 2 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) silt loam; weak medium granular structure; friable; common 1/2 inch to 3 inches shale fragments; very strongly acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (0 to 4 inches thick)

A22 to 6 inches; brownish yellow (10YR 6/6) silt loam; weak fine granular structure; friable; common 1/2 inch to 3 inches shale fragments; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (0 to 5 inches thick)

Bt16 to 9 inches; yellowish red (5YR 5/6) silty clay loam; weak fine subangular blocky structure; friable; common 1/2 inch to 3 inches shale fragments; thin patchy clay films on faces of peds; strongly acid; gradual smooth boundary. (2 to 5 inches thick)

Bt29 to 22 inches; yellowish brown (5YR 4/8) silty clay; moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm; common 1 inch to 3 inches shale fragments; thin continuous red (2.5YR 4/8) clay films on faces of peds; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (8 to 20 inches thick)

C22 to 35 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) weathered shale; common medium distinct yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) and yellowish red (5YR 5/8) mottles; moderate medium platy structure; firm; moist shale fragments can be crushed between fingers; thin continuous clay films between horizontal plates; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (0 to 20 inches thick)

Cr35 to 60 inches; reddish yellow (7.5YR 6/6) level bedded consolidated shale; common medium streaks of very pale brown (10YR 7/4) and yellowish red (5YR 5/8); acid.

TYPE LOCATION: Fayette County, Alabama; 100 feet north of centerline of County Highway 44 and about 1 mile north-east of intersection with State Highway 13 in the NW1/4NW1/4 sec. 18, T. 14 S., R. 11 W.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness and depth to consolidated shale bedrock ranges from 20 to 40 inches. The A and upper part of the Bt contains 5 to 20% shale fragments. The lower Bt contains 15 to 30% shale fragments. The A horizon has from 0 to 35% sandstone fragments and the B horizon has from 0 to 5% sandstone fragments. Reaction of all horizons ranges from strongly acid through extremely acid, except where limed.

The A1 horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 2.5 through 4, and chroma of 2 or 3.

The Ap and A2 horizons have hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 4 or 6, and chroma 3 through 6. Texture of the A horizon is fine sandy loam, loam, silt loam, or gravelly analogues. Eroded Ap horizons are redder and are clay loam, silty clay loam, or clay; or their shaly analogues.

The Bt horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 5YR, or 2.5YR, value of 4 or 5, and chroma 4 through 8. The Bt horizon is silty clay loam, silty clay, or clay.

The BC horizon, when present, is mottled in various shades of brown, yellow, and red.

The C horizon, where present, commonly has variegated colors in shades of gray, brown, red, or yellow. This horizon in most pedons is weathered shale and has platy relict rock structure. The Cr horizon is consolidated shale that can be ripped with heavy machinery.

COMPETING SERIES: These are the Albertville, Badin, Bengal, Bonwier, Brockroad, Carnasaw, Catharpin, Cullen, Cunningham, Cuthbert, Enders, Endsaw, Fluvanna, Galilee, Gritney, Kirvin, Luverne, Masada, Mattaponi, Mayodan, McQueen, Nason, Remplap, Sweatman, Tatum, Totier, Urland, Vance, and Williamsville series. Albertville, Bonwier, Brockroad, Cullen, Cunningham, Cuthbert, Enders, Endsaw, Fluvanna, Gritney, Kirvin, Luverne, Masada, Mattaponi, Mayodan, McQueen, Remlap, Sweatman, Tatum, Totier, Urland, Vance, and Williamsville soils lack paralithic contacts within 40 inches of the soil surface. Badin soils have a lithic contact with 40 inches. Bengal and Carnasaw soils have an irregular boundary between the Bt horizon and the underlying tilted rock. Galilee soils lack shale fragments in the Bt horizon. Nason soils are weathered from schist and lack shale fragments in the Bt horizon.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Townley soils are on ridgetops and side slopes of the dissected plateaus and mountains. Slopes range from 2 to 45%. The regolith is clayey residuum weathered from shale or interbedded sandstone and shale. Average annual air temperature near the type location is 62°F, and average annual precipitation is about 53 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the competing Albertville and Enders series and the Hartsells, Hector, Linker, Montevallo, and Nauvoo series. Hartsells and Linker soils have less than 35% clay in the argillic horizon and are over sandstone. Hector and Montevallo soils lack argillic horizons and have less than 35% clay. Hector soils are over sandstone bedrock at 8 to 20 inches and Montevallo soils have more than 35% shale fragments. Nauvoo soils have less than 35% clay in the control section and are over sandstone bedrock at 40 to 60 inches.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Well drained. Runoff is medium to rapid. Permeability is slow.

USE AND VEGETATION: Most of the soil is in forest. Cleared areas are used for growing cotton, corn, hay, and pasture. Native forest is oak, hickory, dogwood, and pine.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, and possibly Kentucky, Tennessee, and Virginia. Townley soils are moderately extensive.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Morgantown, West Virginia

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Fayette County, Alabama; 1963.

REMARKS: These soils were formerly included in the Albertville and Enders series.

National Cooperative Soil Survey U. S. A.



 

LOCATION VAIDEN AL+LA MS
Established Series
Rev. WJR:PGM
2/97

VAIDEN SERIES

The Vaiden series consists of very deep, somewhat poorly drained, very slowly permeable soils that formed in clayey sediments overlying chalk or calcareous clays. They are on uplands and old stream terraces of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas Blackland Prairie and the Southern Coastal Plain major land resource areas. Near the type location, the average annual air temperature is about 63°F, and the average annual precipitation is about 53 inches. Slopes are dominantly 0 to 5% but range to 17%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Very-fine, smectitic, thermic Aquic Dystruderts

TYPICAL PEDON: Vaiden claypasture, micro-high of cyclic pedon. (Colors are for moist soil.)

Ap0 to 4 inches; very dark grayish brown (10YR 3/2) clay; weak fine granular structure; firm; common fine roots; slightly acid; abrupt wavy boundary. (1 to 8 inches thick)

Btss14 to 18 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate fine and medium angular blocky; firm; common fine roots; few intersecting slickensides having faint, slightly grooved surfaces; many medium distinct light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) iron depletions and few fine prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) masses of iron accumulation on ped faces and within the matrix; very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary.

Btss218 to 26 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/8) clay; weak coarse prismatic structure parting to moderate fine and medium angular blocky; firm; few fine roots; common intersecting slickensides having faint, slightly grooved surfaces; many medium distinct light gray (5Y 7/1) iron depletions and few fine prominent red (2.5YR 4/8) masses of iron accumulation on ped faces and within the matrix; few fine black concretions (MnO2); very strongly acid; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Btss horizon is 5 to 30 inches.)

Bss126 to 40 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/6) interior, gray (5Y 6/1) exterior, clay; moderate coarse and very coarse angular blocky structure; firm; few fine roots, flattened on primary surfaces; common large intersecting slickensides having prominent polished and grooved surfaces; common fine and medium distinct gray (5Y 6/1) iron depletions in the matrix; gray (5Y 6/1) colors on faces of slickensides and peds are iron depletions; moderately acid; gradual wavy boundary. Bss240 to 62 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) interior, gray (5Y 6/1) exterior, clay; moderate coarse and very coarse angular blocky structure; firm; common large intersecting slickensides having prominent polished and grooved surfaces; many fine and medium distinct gray (5Y 6/1) iron depletions in the matrix; gray (5Y 6/1) colors on faces of slickensides and peds are iron depletions; slightly acid; clear wavy boundary. (Combined thickness of the Bss horizon is 20 to 50 inches.)

Bkss62 to 80 inches; light olive brown (2.5Y 5/4) clay; coarse and very coarse angular blocky structure; firm; common large intersecting slickensides having prominent polished and grooved surfaces; many fine and medium light gray (5Y 7/1) iron depletions on faces of slickensides and secondary peds; common fine and medium black concretions (MnO2); common medium rounded soft masses of calcium carbonate and few fine and medium rounded calcium carbonate nodules; strongly effervescent; slightly alkaline.

TYPE LOCATION: Dallas County, Alabama; 75 feet north of county road, 2 miles northwest of the Black Belt Substation, 300 feet east of Southern Railroad and 1/2 mile south of Perry County line. SE1/4,SE1/4,NW1/4 sec. 3, T. 17 N., R. 8 E.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Depth to horizons with secondary carbonates is greater than 36 inches. Depth to chalk bedrock characterized as a paralithic contact is 60 inches or more.

The A or Ap horizon has hue of 10YR, value of 3 or 4, and chroma of 1 to 3. Texture is clay loam, silty clay loam, clay, or silty clay. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid.

The Btss horizon or the Bt horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, value of 4 or 5, and chroma of 4 to 8. Iron depletions in shades of gray and iron accumulations in shades of brown and red range from common to many. Some pedons lack a dominant matrix color and are multi-colored in shades of brown, gray, red, and yellow. Concretions and/or soft masses of manganese range from none to common. Texture is clay. Reaction is very strongly acid or strongly acid.

The Bss horizon has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y, and value of 5 or 6. Chroma ranges from 4 to 8 in ped interiors and is 1 or 2 on ped exteriors or slickenside faces. Some pedons do not have a dominant matrix color and are multi-colored in shades of gray, brown, olive, and red. Iron depletions in shades of gray and iron accumulations in shades of brown and red range from common to many. Concretions and/or soft masses of manganese range from none to common. Texture is clay. Reaction ranges from very strongly acid to slightly acid.

The Bkss horizon, present in most pedons, has hue of 10YR, 2.5Y, or 5Y and value of 4 to 6. Chroma ranges from 4 to 6 in ped interiors and is 1 or 2 on the exterior of peds or slickenside faces. Some pedons do not have a dominant matrix color and are multi-colored in shades of gray, brown, and olive. Iron depletions in shades of gray and iron ccumulations in shades of brown range from few to many and are most common on surfaces of peds or slickensides. Texture is clay or silty clay. Reaction is commonly slightly alkaline or moderately alkaline, but ranges to neutral. Soft masses and nodules or concretions of calcium carbonate range from few to many. Soft masses and/or concretions of manganese range from none to common.

The 2C horizon, present in some pedons, is highly weathered chalk or calcareous clay. It is massive or has platy rock structure. Some pedons have a 2Cr horizon below a depth of 60 inches that is weathered chalk bedrock. It can be dug with difficulty with hand tools and is rippable by heavy equipment.

COMPETING SERIES: There currently are no series in the same family.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Vaiden soils are on broad ridge tops and side slopes of uplands and old stream terraces of the Alabama, Mississippi, and Arkansas Blackland Prairie and the Southern Coastal Plain MLRAs. Slopes are generally 0 to 5% but range to 17%. These soils formed in clayey sediments overlying chalk or calcareous clays. The average annual air temperature ranges from 60 to 65°F, and the average annual precipitation ranges from 48 to 56 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These are the Brooksville, Eutaw, Faunsdale, Houston, Keiffer, Kipling, Louin, Maytag, Okolona, Oktibbeha, Sucarnoochee, and Sumter series. Brooksville and Faunsdale soils are on lower slopes and are neutral to moderately alkaline throughout. The poorly drained Eutaw soils are in slightly depressed positions and are dominantly gray in the upper part of the solum. Houston and Okolona soils are on slightly more convex positions and have thick dark colored surface horizons. Keiffer, Maytag, and Sumter soils are on slightly higher positions and are calcareous to the surface. Kipling soils are on similar positions as Vaiden soils and have fine textured argillic horizons. Louin soils are on similar positions as Vaiden soils and average less than 60% clay in the particle-size control section. Oktibbeha soils are on higher, more convex slopes and have hue of 2.5YR or 5YR in the upper part of the solum. Sucarnoochee soils are in flood plains and are neutral to moderately alkaline throughout.

DRAINAGE AND PERMEABILITY: Somewhat poorly drained. Surface runoff is slow to rapid. Permeability is very slow. These soils are saturated within a depth of 1.0 to 2.0 feet of the surface for significant periods during winter and spring of most years.

USE AND VEGETATION: Principal uses are cropland, pasture, hayland, and woodland. The main crops are cotton, soybeans, corn, and grain sorghum. Common trees in wooded areas are loblolly pine, shortleaf pine, post oak, sweetgum, southern red oak, and hickory.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Alabama, Louisiana, and Mississippi. The series is of large extent.

MLRA OFFICE RESPONSIBLE: Auburn, Alabama

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Perry County, Alabama; 1930.

REMARKS: These soils were formerly classified as Vertic Hapludalfs. An argillic horizon is not currently recognized in the Vertisol order but is considered an important feature of this soil.

Diagnostic horizons and features recognized in this pedon are:

Ochric epipedon - the zone from the surface to a depth of about 4 inches (Ap horizon)Argillic horizon - the zone from approximately 4 to 26 inches (Btss horizons)

Cambic horizon - The zone from approximately 26 to 80 inches (Bss and Bkss horizons)

Intersecting slickensides beginning at about 4 inches and continuing to a depth of 80 inches. (Btss, Bss, and Bkss horizons)

Aquic conditions within 40 inches of the soil surface in most years and redoximorphic features (Btss horizon)

SIR - AL0017

MLRA 135, 133A, 133B

National Cooperative Soil Survey U.S.A.



 

LOCATION WYNNVILLE AL
Established Series
Rev. CDB:GWH
2/79

WYNNVILLE SERIES

The Wynnville series consists of moderately well drained, slowly permeable soils that formed in material weathered from sandstone and shale. These soils are on nearly level to sloping mountain plateaus. Runoff is slow to medium. A water table is perched at 1.5 to 2.5 feet during winter. Slope is 0 to 10%.

TAXONOMIC CLASS: Fine-loamy, siliceous, thermic Glossic Fragiudults

TYPICAL PEDON: Wynnville fine sandy loam, in a cultivated field. (Colors are for moist soil unless otherwise stated.)

Ap0 to 7 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/4) fine sandy loam; weak medium granular structure; very friable; common fine roots; medium acid; abrupt smooth boundary. (6 to 10 inches thick)

B27 to 23 inches; yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loam; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; few fine roots and pores; few earthworm channels; few pebbles of sandstone; few fine black concretions; strongly acid; clear smooth boundary. (12 to 26 inches thick)

A&B23 to 33 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy loam (A part) in tongues and pockets and yellowish brown (10YR 5/6) loam (B part) with common medium distinct yellowish red (5YR 5/6) mottles; weak coarse platy structure parting to weak medium subangular blocky structure; firm, slightly brittle in about 70% of volume; few fine roots in tongues; common fine and medium pores; thin patchy clay films on faces of some peds; few medium fragments of sandstone; very strongly acid; clear irregular boundary. (6 to 12 inches thick)

Bx133 to 48 inches; mottled yellowish brown (10YR 5/6), yellowish red (5YR 5/6), and light gray (10YR 7/2) sandy clay loam; weak coarse platy structure parting to moderate medium subangular blocky structure; firm, brittle; thick continuous clay films on faces of some peds; light gray material in tongues; few medium fragments of sandstone; very strongly acid; clear irregular boundary. (12 to 20 inches thick)

B2t48 to 72 inches; strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) sandy clay loam, with few fine faint yellowish red (5YR 5/6) mottles; weak medium subangular blocky structure; friable; patchy clay films on faces of some peds; light gray material in tongues; few medium fragments of sandstone; strongly acid. (14 to 40 inches thick)

R72 inches; hard sandstone bedrock.

TYPE LOCATION: Blount County, Alabama; 3 miles northwest of Susan Moore School in SE1/4NE1/4 of sec. 7, T. 11 S., R. 2 E.

RANGE IN CHARACTERISTICS: Solum thickness ranges from 40 to 72 inches. Depth to bedrock ranges from 4 to 7 feet. Depth to the fragipan horizon ranges from 18 to 36 inches. Coarse fragments, chiefly sandstone, range from none to common throughout the profile. Maximum content in any part of the pedon is 15%. Reaction ranges from extremely acid to strongly acid except for the A horizon where limed.

The A horizon has hue of 10YR, values of 5 or 6, and chroma 3 through 8, or hue of 2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma 4 or 6. It is fine sandy loam, silt loam, or loam.

The B1 horizon, where present, has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, values of 5 or 6, and chroma 4 through 8. It is fine sandy loam, silt loam, or loam.

The B2 horizon has hue of 7.5YR, 10YR, or 2.5Y, value of 5, and chroma 4 through 8. It is sandy loam, silt loam, loam, or sandy clay loam. The B2 horizon typically has 18 to 24% clay, but ranges from 18 to 30%.

The A2 part of the A&B horizon has hue of 10YR or 2.5Y, values of 6 or 7, and chroma 1 through 3. It is sandy loam, silt loam, or loam. The Bx part of the A&B horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma 4 through 8, and commonly is mottled in shades of red, brown, and gray. It is loam, silt loam, sandy loam, or sandy clay loam.

The Bx horizon has hue of 10YR or 7.5YR, value of 5, and chroma 4 through 8, or hue of 5YR, values of 4 or 5, and chroma 6 or 8, and commonly has mottles in shades of red, brown, or gray. It is loam or sandy clay loam but includes clay loam and silt loam.

The B2t horizon has hue of 2.5YR or 5YR, values of 4 or 5, and chroma 6 or 8, or hue of 7.5YR, value 5, and chroma 6 or 8, and commonly is mottled in shades of red, brown, yellow, or gray. It is loam, sandy clay loam, or clay loam. The C horizon, where present, is similar to the B2t horizon in color and texture.

Competing Series: These are the Dickson, Locust, Nixa, Paden, Pheba, Prentiss, Roane, Sango and Taft series. Dickson and Paden soils have less than 15% sand coarser than very fine sand in the B horizons and Paden soils have mixed mineralogy. Locust soils have mixed mineralogy. Nixa soils have more than 35% coarse fragments in the B horizons. Prentiss and Sango soils have less than 18% clay in the B horizons. Pheba and Taft soils have mottles of chroma 2 within 16 inches of the soil surface. Roane soils have more than 15% coarse fragments.

GEOGRAPHIC SETTING: Wynnville soils are on neary level to sloping mountain plateaus. Slopes range from 0 to 10%, but slopes of 0 to 6% are dominant. The soil is weathered from sandstone and shale. Near the type location the mean annual temperature is 62°F, and the average annual precipitation is 54 inches.

GEOGRAPHICALLY ASSOCIATED SOILS: These include the competing Locust series, and the Albertville, Enders, Hartsells, Linker, and Townely series. All of these soils except Locust lack a fragipan, and they have argillic upper B horizons.

Drainage and Permeability: Wynnville soils are moderately well drained; slow to medium runoff; moderately permeable above the fragipan and slowly permeable in the fragipan.

USE AND VEGETATION: Used mainly for cultivation of cotton, corn, soybeans, hay, small grain, and pasture. Forested areas are mostly hardwoods, chiefly oaks, hickories, and gums with some loblolly, shortleaf, and Virginia pines.

DISTRIBUTION AND EXTENT: Appalachian Plateau regions of Alabama, Tennessee, and Georgia. The series is of moderate extent

SERIES ESTABLISHED: Blount County, Alabama; 1974.

REMARKS: This soil was formerly included with the Tilsit series. It is the thermic temperature zone equivalent to the Tilsit series of the Mesic temperature zone. Textural data in the control section above the fragipan indicates this soil is fine-loamy marginal to coarse loamy.

National Cooperative Soil Survey U. S. A.




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Electronic document prepared by:
D.L. Nofziger, Oklahoma State University
Email address: david.nofziger@okstate.edu